Chefs and Head Cooks

Career, Salary and Education Information

What They Do: Chefs and head cooks oversee the daily food preparation at restaurants and other places where food is served.

Work Environment: Chefs and head cooks work in restaurants, private households, and other establishments where food is served. They often work early mornings, late evenings, weekends, and holidays. The work can be hectic and fast-paced. Most chefs and head cooks work full time.

How to Become One: Most chefs and head cooks learn their skills through work experience. Others receive training at a community college, technical school, culinary arts school, or 4-year college. Some learn through apprenticeship programs.

Salary: The median annual wage for chefs and head cooks is $48,460.

Job Outlook: Employment of chefs and head cooks is projected to grow 11 percent over the next ten years, much faster than the average for all occupations. Most job opportunities for chefs and head cooks are expected to be in food services, including restaurants. Job opportunities will result from growth and from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation.

Related Careers: Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of chefs and head cooks with similar occupations.

Following is everything you need to know about a career as a chef or head cook with lots of details. As a first step, take a look at some of the following jobs, which are real jobs with real employers. You will be able to see the very real job career requirements for employers who are actively hiring. The link will open in a new tab so that you can come back to this page to continue reading about the career:

Top 3 Chef Jobs

  • Italian Sous Chef - Jersey John's Pizzeria - Fort Lauderdale, FL

    A Sous Chef is the culinary chef located just below the executive or head chef in a kitchen's chain of command. Therefore, the Sous Chef has a vital role in any commercial kitchen. As second-in ...

  • Executive Sous Chef - 65k - 85k DOE - bistro jeanty - Yountville, CA

    Executive Sous- Chef for Yountville, Ca RestaurantBISTRO JEANTY in Yountville California is seeking an organized and highly motivated individual to work with our culinary team in one of America ...

  • Korean Specialty Chef - Bobzip Innovation, LLC - Aurora, CO

    Korean Specialty Chef , Bobzip Innovation, LLC, Aurora, CO. 2 years of experience in the job offered. Season, prepare & cook Korean style specialty dishes, including donburi, bulgogi, and samgyupsal ...

See all Chef jobs

Top 3 Head Cook Jobs

  • Head Cook - Dei Spring Academy - Cold Spring, MN

    The cook 's responsibilities include: · prepare breakfast, lunch, and some afternoon snacks · prepare the food carts/trays for 4 classrooms · clean kitchen and wash dishes after meals · keep food ...

  • Food Service Manager & Head Cook - Camp Sealth (Camp Fire Central Puget Sound) - Vashon, WA

    Food Service Manager & Head Cook Position Summary Oversee all aspects of camp food service for youth and adult groups during summer camp and school-year retreat seasons. Prepare menus, order food ...

  • COOK I, COOK II AND HEAD COOK - Decton Staffing Services - Oceanside, CA

    Looking for Experienced COOKS for long term (possibly temp-to-hire) to work in the Oceanside, CA area. COOKS will be cooking or grilling food in large quantities and must be able to read recipes

See all Head Cook jobs

What Chefs and Head Cooks Do[About this section] [To Top]

Chefs and head cooks oversee the daily food preparation at restaurants and other places where food is served. They direct kitchen staff and handle any food-related concerns.

Duties of Chefs and Head Cooks

Chefs and head cooks typically do the following:

  • Check the freshness of food and ingredients
  • Supervise and coordinate activities of cooks and other food preparation workers
  • Develop recipes and determine how to present dishes
  • Plan menus and ensure the quality of meals
  • Inspect supplies, equipment, and work areas for cleanliness and functionality
  • Hire, train, and supervise cooks and other food preparation workers
  • Order and maintain an inventory of food and supplies
  • Monitor sanitation practices and follow kitchen safety standards

Chefs and head cooks use a variety of kitchen and cooking equipment, including step-in coolers, high-quality knives, meat slicers, and grinders. They also have access to large quantities of meats, spices, and produce. Some chefs use scheduling and purchasing software to help them in their administrative tasks.

Chefs who run their own restaurant or catering business are often busy with kitchen and office work. Some chefs use social media to promote their business by advertising new menu items or addressing customer reviews.

The following are examples of types of chefs and head cooks:

Executive chefs, head cooks, and chefs de cuisine are responsible primarily for overseeing the operation of a kitchen. They coordinate the work of sous chefs and other cooks, who prepare most of the meals. Executive chefs also have many duties beyond the kitchen. They design the menu, review food and beverage purchases, and often train cooks and other food preparation workers. Some executive chefs primarily handle administrative tasks and may spend less time in the kitchen.

Sous chefs are a kitchen's second-in-command. They supervise the restaurant's cooks, prepare meals, and report results to the head chefs. In the absence of the head chef, sous chefs run the kitchen.

Private household chefs typically work full time for one client, such as a corporate executive, university president, or diplomat, who regularly entertains as part of his or her official duties.

Work Environment for Chefs and Head Cooks[About this section] [To Top]

Chefs and head cooks hold about 139,000 jobs. The largest employers of chefs and head cooks are as follows:

Restaurants and other eating places 51%
Special food services 11%
Traveler accommodation 10%
Amusement, gambling, and recreation industries 6%
Self-employed workers 4%

Chefs and head cooks work in restaurants, hotels, private households, and other food service establishments. All of the cooking and food preparation areas in these facilities must be kept clean and sanitary. Chefs and head cooks usually stand for long periods and work in a fast-paced environment.

Some self-employed chefs run their own restaurants or catering businesses and their work can be more stressful. For example, outside the kitchen, they often spend many hours managing all aspects of the business to ensure that bills and salaries are paid and that the business is profitable.

Injuries and Illnesses for Chefs and Head Cooks

Chefs and head cooks risk injury in kitchens, which are usually crowded and potentially dangerous. Common hazards include burns from hot ovens, falls on slippery floors, and cuts from knives and other sharp objects, but these injuries are seldom serious. To reduce the risk of harm, workers often wear long-sleeve shirts and nonslip shoes.

Chef and Head Cook Work Schedules

Most chefs and head cooks work full time, including early mornings, late evenings, weekends, and holidays. Many chefs and head cooks work more than 40 hours a week.

How to Become a Chef or Head Cook[About this section] [To Top]

Get the education you need: Find schools for Chefs and Head Cooks near you!

Most chefs and head cooks learn their skills through work experience. Others receive training at a community college, technical school, culinary arts school, or 4-year college. A small number learn through apprenticeship programs or in the Armed Forces.

Find a Degree:


Education for Chefs and Head Cooks

Although postsecondary education is not required for chefs and head cooks, many attend programs at community colleges, technical schools, culinary arts schools, and 4-year colleges. Candidates are typically required to have a high school diploma or equivalent to enter these programs.

Students in culinary programs spend most of their time in kitchens, practicing their cooking skills. Programs cover all aspects of kitchen work, including menu planning, food sanitation procedures, and purchasing and inventory methods. Most training programs also require students to gain experience in a commercial kitchen through an internship or apprenticeship program.

Work Experience in a Related Occupation for Chefs and Head Cooks

Most chefs and head cooks start by working in other positions, such as line cooks, learning cooking skills from the chefs they work for. Many spend years working in kitchens before gaining enough experience to be promoted to chef or head cook positions.

Chef and Head Cook Training

Some chefs and head cooks train on the job, where they learn the same skills as in a formal education program. Some train in mentorship programs, where they work under the direction of an experienced chef. Executive chefs, head cooks, and sous chefs who work in upscale restaurants often have many years of training and experience.

Chefs and head cooks also may learn through apprenticeship programs sponsored by professional culinary institutes, industry associations, or trade unions. Some of these apprenticeship programs are registered with the U.S. Department of Labor. Apprenticeship programs generally last 2 years and combine instruction and on-the-job training. Apprentices typically receive about 2,000 hours of both instruction and paid on-the-job training per year. Courses typically cover food sanitation and safety, basic knife skills, and equipment operation. Apprentices spend the rest of their training learning practical skills in a commercial kitchen under a chef's supervision.

The American Culinary Federation accredits more than 200 academic training programs at postsecondary schools and sponsors apprenticeships around the country. The basic qualifications required for entering an apprenticeship program are as follows:

  • Minimum age of 17
  • High school education or equivalent

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations for Chefs and Head Cooks

Although not required, certification can show competence and lead to advancement and higher pay. The American Culinary Federation certifies personal chefs, in addition to various levels of chefs, such as certified sous chefs or certified executive chefs. Certification standards are based primarily on work-related experience and formal training. Minimum work experience for certification can range from about 6 months to 5 years, depending on the level of certification.

Important Qualities for Chefs and Head Cooks

Business skills. Executive chefs and chefs who run their own restaurant need to understand the restaurant business. They should know how to budget for supplies, set prices, and manage workers so that the restaurant is profitable.

Communication skills. Chefs must communicate their instructions clearly and effectively to staff so that customers' orders are prepared correctly.

Creativity. Chefs and head cooks need to be creative in order to develop and prepare interesting and innovative recipes. They should be able to use various ingredients to create appealing meals for their customers.

Dexterity. Chefs and head cooks need excellent dexterity, including proper knife techniques for cutting, chopping, and dicing.

Leadership skills. Chefs and head cooks must have the ability to motivate kitchen staff and develop constructive and cooperative working relationships with them.

Physical stamina. Chefs and head cooks often work long shifts and sometimes spend entire evenings on their feet, overseeing the preparation and serving of meals.

Sense of taste and smell. Chefs and head cooks must have a keen sense of taste and smell in order to inspect food quality and to design meals that their customers will enjoy.

Time-management skills. Chefs and head cooks must efficiently manage their time and the time of their staff. They ensure that meals are prepared correctly and that customers are served on time, especially during busy hours.

Chef and Head Cook Salaries[About this section] [More salary/earnings info] [To Top]

The median annual wage for chefs and head cooks is $48,460. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $26,320, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $81,150.

The median annual wages for chefs and head cooks in the top industries in which they work are as follows:

Traveler accommodation $56,750
Amusement, gambling, and recreation industries $53,720
Special food services $52,810
Restaurants and other eating places $45,070

The level of pay for chefs and head cooks varies greatly by region and employer. Pay is usually highest in upscale restaurants and hotels, where many executive chefs work, as well as in major metropolitan and resort areas.

Most chefs and head cooks work full time and often work early mornings, late evenings, weekends, and holidays. Many chefs and head cooks work more than 40 hours a week.

Job Outlook for Chefs and Head Cooks[About this section] [To Top]

Employment of chefs and head cooks is projected to grow 11 percent over the next ten years, much faster than the average for all occupations.

Income growth will result in greater demand for high-quality dishes at a variety of dining venues. As a result, more restaurants and other dining places are expected to open to satisfy consumer desire for dining out.

Consumers are continuing to demand healthier meals made from scratch in restaurants, in cafeterias, in grocery stores, and by catering services. To ensure high-quality dishes, these establishments are increasingly hiring experienced chefs to oversee food preparation.

Job Prospects for Chefs and Head Cooks

Job opportunities should be best for chefs and head cooks with several years of work experience in a kitchen. Job openings will result from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation. The fast pace, time demands, and high energy levels required for these jobs often lead to a high rate of turnover.

There will be strong competition for jobs at upscale restaurants, hotels, and casinos, where the pay is typically highest. Workers with a combination of business skills, previous work experience, and culinary creativity should have the best job prospects.

Employment projections data for Chefs and Head Cooks, 2018-28
Occupational Title Employment, 2018 Projected Employment, 2028 Change, 2018-28
Percent Numeric
Chefs and head cooks 139,000 154,300 11 15,400


*Some content used by permission of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor.

Explore more careers: View all Careers or Browse Careers by Category

Search for jobs: