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Actors express ideas and portray characters in theater, film, television, and other performing arts media. They interpret a writer's script to entertain or inform an audience.
Actors typically do the following:
Most actors struggle to find steady work, and few achieve recognition as stars. Some work as "extras"—actors who have no lines to deliver but are included in scenes to give a more realistic setting. Some actors do voiceover or narration work for animated features, audiobooks, or other electronic media.
In some stage or film productions, actors sing, dance, or play a musical instrument. For some roles, an actor must learn a new skill, such as horseback riding or stage fighting.
Most actors have long periods of unemployment between roles and often hold other jobs in order to make a living. Some actors teach acting classes as a second job.
Actors hold about 63,800 jobs. The largest employers of actors are as follows:
|Motion picture and video industries||32%|
|Theater companies and dinner theaters||13|
|Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state, local, and private||4|
Work assignments are usually short, ranging from 1 day to a few months, and actors often hold another job in order to make a living. They are frequently under the stress of having to find their next job. Some actors in touring companies may be employed for several years.
Actors may perform in unpleasant conditions, such as outdoors in bad weather, under hot stage lights, or while wearing an uncomfortable costume or makeup.
Work hours for actors are extensive and irregular. Early morning, evening, weekend, and holiday work is common. About 1 in 4 actors work part time. Few actors work full time, and many have variable schedules. Those who work in theater may travel with a touring show across the country. Film and television actors may also travel to work on location.
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Many actors enhance their skills through formal dramatic education, and long-term training is common.
Many actors enhance their skills through formal dramatic education. Many who specialize in theater have bachelor's degrees, but a degree is not required.
Although some people succeed in acting without getting a formal education, most actors acquire some formal preparation through a theater company's acting conservatory or a university drama or theater arts program. Students can take college classes in drama or filmmaking to prepare for a career as an actor. Classes in dance or music may help as well.
Actors who do not have a college degree may take acting or film classes to learn their craft. Community colleges, acting conservatories, and private film schools typically offer these classes. Many theater companies also have education programs.
Creativity. Actors interpret their characters' feelings and motives in order to portray the characters in the most compelling way.
Memorization skills. Actors memorize many lines before filming begins or a show opens. Television actors often appear on camera with little time to memorize scripts, and scripts frequently may be revised or even written just moments before filming.
Persistence. Actors may audition for many roles before getting a job. They must be able to accept rejection and keep going.
Physical stamina. Actors should be in good enough physical condition to endure the heat from stage or studio lights and the weight of heavy costumes or makeup. They may work many hours, including acting in more than one performance a day, and they must do so without getting overly tired.
Reading skills. Actors must read scripts and be able to interpret how a writer has developed their character.
Speaking skills. Actors—particularly stage actors—must say their lines clearly, project their voice, and pronounce words so that audiences understand them.
In addition to these qualities, actors usually must be physically coordinated to perform predetermined, sometimes complex movements with other actors, such as dancing or stage fighting, in order to complete a scene.
It takes many years of practice to develop the skills needed to be a successful actor, and actors never truly finish training. They work to improve their acting skills throughout their career. Many actors continue to train through workshops, rehearsals, or mentoring by a drama coach.
Every role is different, and an actor may need to learn something new for each one. For example, a role may require learning how to sing or dance, or an actor may have to learn to speak with an accent or to play a musical instrument or sport.
Many aspiring actors begin by participating in school plays or local theater productions. In television and film, actors usually start out in smaller roles or independent movies and work their way up to bigger productions.
As an actor's reputation grows, he or she may work on bigger projects or in more prestigious venues. Some actors become producers and directors.
The median hourly wage for actors is $18.70. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $9.39, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $100.00.
The median hourly wages for actors in the top industries in which they work are as follows:
|Motion picture and video industries||$22.30|
|Theater companies and dinner theaters||16.97|
|Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state, local, and private||16.75|
Work hours for actors are extensive and irregular. Early morning, evening, weekend, and holiday work is common. About 1 in 4 actors work part time. Few actors work full time, and many have variable schedules. Those who work in theater may travel with a touring show across the country. Actors in movies may also travel to work on location.
Compared with workers in all occupations, actors have a higher percentage of workers who belong to a union. Many film and television actors join the Screen Actors Guild-American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (SAG-AFTRA), whereas many stage actors join the Actors' Equity Association. Union membership can help set work rules, and assist actors in receiving benefits and bigger parts for more pay. Union members must pay yearly dues, which can be expensive for actors who are beginning their careers.
Employment of actors is projected to grow 12 percent over the next ten years, faster than the average for all occupations. Job growth in the motion picture industry will stem from continued strong demand for new movies and television shows. The number of Internet-only platforms, such as streaming services, is likely to increase, along with the number of shows produced for these platforms. This growth may lead to more work for actors.
Actors who work in performing arts companies are expected to see slower job growth than those in film. Many small and medium-size theaters have difficulty getting funding. As a result, the number of performances is expected to decline. Large theaters, with their more stable sources of funding and more well-known plays and musicals, should provide more opportunities.
Actors face intense competition for jobs. Most roles, no matter how minor, have many actors auditioning for them. For stage roles, actors with a bachelor's degree in theater may have a better chance of landing a part than those without one.
|Occupational Title||Employment, 2016||Projected Employment, 2026||Change, 2016-26|